Evidences that the Japanese Military did not Massacre
The Speed of re-population: Population before and after
Evidence that the Japanese Military Did Not Attack Civilians
Prior to the battle of Nanjing, General Iwane Matsui strictly ordered the Japanese Army to be careful not to kill any civilians.
During the battle, every civilian was moved to the Nanjing Safety Zone, which was specially set up to protect all civilians of Nanjing. The Japanese Army knew that many Chinese soldiers were also in the Zone; nevertheless, they did not attack it. Because of this, there were no civilians killed, except for several who were accidentally killed or injured by stray shells.
This Nanking Safety Zone was managed by the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone, which was a group of professors, doctors, missionaries and businessmen from Europe and the USA. They did not leave Nanking before the beginning of the battle, but chose to remain in the city. The leader of the Committee was John Rabe, and after the Japanese occupation, he handed a letter of thanks to the commander of the Japanese army. The following is an excerpt from his letter of thanks:
December 14, 1937
Dear commander of the Japanese army in Nanking,
We appreciate that the artillerymen of your army did not attack the Safety Zone. We hope to contact you to make a plan to protect the general Chinese citizens who are staying in the Safety Zone. We will be pleased to cooperate with you in any way to protect the general citizens in this city.
–Chairman of the Nanking International Committee, John H. D. Rabe–”
First of all, the reason for the Japanese Military attacking Nanjing is similar to the reason why the US and Allied forces attacked Baghdad of Iraq during the Gulf War in 1991. The alliance wanted to eliminate the dictator who was harmful to neighboring countries. Similarly, Japan wanted to get rid of Chiang
Japan wanted to establish a strong Chinese government not of communists, not of Western powers, but of the Chinese people who were willing to build in cooperation with Japan. They wanted to build a “Great Asia” which would not be invaded by communists or exploited by the Western Powers. It was impossible for such a military to kill civilians.
Traditionally in Japan, Samurai warriors lived inside walls of
In Chinese chronicles, we often read such massacres. The Chinese language has the word which writes slaughtering castle and means slaughtering all people within the city. It is in the Chinese historical culture. The Japanese never had such a culture. Nanjing was a walled capital city, and the idea of massacring all of its inhabitants is Chinese, rather than Japanese.
The Total of Buried Bodies
After the battle of Nanjing, the burials of the war dead was done by the Chinese.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Tokyo Trial) used the burial records of about 40,000 bodies by the Red Swastika Society, a Chinese voluntary association in Nanjing as evidence of the killings by the Japanese Military. The Chung Shan Tang, a 140-year old charitable organization reported their burials of 112,267 bodies. These numbers combined was about 155,000.
However, none of the records written by members of the International Committee in Nanjing or the Japanese authorities in Nanjing mentioned the Chung Shan Tang were involved in the burials. Kenichi Arai, a researcher of modern history, showed evidence in an article of the Sankei Shimbun newspaper that the Chung Shan Tang’s burial report of 112,267 bodies has been completely forged and that they had actually buried none. The report by the Chung Shan Tang was false and added after the war to amplify the number of burials.
The reports of the Red Swastika Society are more accurate which they recorded about 40,000 burials. This is said to be almost all of the war dead in Nanjing. This number 40,000 is far from the number 300,000. Also, please not that this number of 40,000 is the number of “soldiers killed in battle” and not “civilians”. To prove this, the reports say there were almost no corpses of women or children. This clearly proves that there was no massacre.
Testimonies that deny the Massacre
Shudo Higashinakano, a professor at Asia University in Tokyo, published a compilation of the testimonies of Japanese soldiers who had participated in the Nanjing operation in his book, “The Truth of the Nanking (Nanjing) Operation in 1937“. In these testimonies, no Japanese soldiers testified that there was a massacre. For example, Colonel Omigaku Mori clearly stated, “I have never heard or seen any massacre in Nanjing”
Kenichi Arai, a researcher of modern history, published a compilation of the testimonies of Japanese press reporters, soldiers
Yoshio Kanazawa, a photographer from the Tokyo Nichinichi Shimbun newspaper, testified, “I entered Nanking with the Japanese army and walked around in the city at random every day, but I have never seen any massacre nor heard it from soldiers or my colleagues. It is impossible for me to say that there was a massacre. Of course, I saw many corpses, but they were those killed in battle.”
Tokuyasu Fukuda, who was in Nanking as a Japanese diplomat, testified, “It is a fact that there were crimes and bad aspects of the Japanese military, but there was absolutely no massacre of
Kannosuke Mitoma, a press reporter of the Fukuoka NichinichiShimbun newspaper, worked as the head of the Nanking branch office at the time of the Japanese occupation. In those days his daughter attended the Japanese elementary school in Nanking (from the first grade to the fifth). She testified, “I used to play with neighboring Chinese children in Nanking, but I have never heard even a rumor of the massacre.”